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There are two sides of the industry, the advertisers and the publishers.
The publishers are the web sites which provide the content which attracts the viewers.
This is the platform on which viewers will potentially view both the content and the advertisement. The advertisers are the ones who have a product or message to market and promote to the viewing audience.
Advertising Networks: The publishers can sell ads to advertisers or use an ad broker which goes out and sells ads to be hosted on an affiliate publishers web site.
Advertising revenue models:
- CPM: Cost Per Mille (Latin for thousand). The advertiser pays an unit price per thousand impressions (viewings).
- CPC: Cost Per Click. The advertiser pays for every click a viewer makes on the advertisement. The ad typically links to the advertiser's web site.
- CPA: Cost Per Acquisition. The advertiser only pays when a click on an ad converts to a purchase or completes a transaction. Also can mean Cost Per Action where the action can be a customer phone call.
- eCPM: Equivalent CPM. This allows for a blend of CPM, CPC and even CPA to be normalized into an equivalent measurement of CPM. This assumes a formula for finding a CPM value for a single click to equate CPM and CPC.
- CPL: Cost Per Lead. The lead can be a form filled out by a user to request more information or a request for a call from a sales representative.
- CPS: Cost Per Sale. Also known as PPS (Pay Per Sale), or CPO (Cost Per Order).
- CPV: Cost Per-Click2Play View. Advertiser is charged only when consumers actively elect to watch the video.
- CPCV: Cost Per Completed View. Advertiser is charged only when consumers watch 80% or more of the video.
The Ad Networks are the entities who provide a mechanism to post advertisements on websites provided by the web publishers.
Advertising Networks feed ads from their ad servers to be posted on the website, provide statistics about the ad feeds and send out a check to the web site publisher.
List of advertising Networks:
See slide 4 in this presentation to help select an ad network.
|Network||Description and Link|
|24-7 Real Media:|
Geographic, behavioral, contextual, demographic, daypart, technographic and search targeting and retargeting. Lifecycle ad management and targeting. Supports all digital formats.
|Ad Bid Central:|
Affiliated with 24-7 Real Media and ComScore networks for metrics.
Targeted ads and uses a proprietary algorithm to maximize your ROI.
Worldwide targeted CPM ads for video and text content.
Based on MediaMath TerminalOne service platform.
Latin America and South America.
The article-based advertising platform to deliver highly educated and motivated traffic.
Targeted towards ethnic groups: African-Americans, Hispanic, Asian American.
Leading provider of ad serving technology since 1994. AdJuggler helps our clients maximize their ad revenue by providing cutting edge technology and unmatched support to manage and deliver ads in a cost effective and precise manner. Headquartered in Alexandria, VA.
Utilizes powerful predictive technology to connect advertisers with consumers across multiple channels, including email, search, domain, and social networks.
Uses proprietary longitudinal research algorithms to enhance advertiser performance and maximize publisher revenue. CPM
Ad solutions include pay per click search (PPC) and cost per click (CPC) banners, in text ads, xml feeds, display ads, cost per view (CPV,PPV) interstitials and domain parking.
Use of roll over Ad tag clouds [demo]. PPC. Ad network and exchange. XML feeds.
Southeast Asia: Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam.
Ad network and RTB. Hosts private exchanges for publishers. New York, London, Berlin, Toronto
Site-specific ROI tracking along with Behavioral, Contextual and Geo Targeting and Advertiser Retargeting.
Currently working with a lot of business owners, marketers and affiliates across the globe. Ad network.
Customized advertising solutions and formats needed to maximize site revenue through targeted advertising inventory and innovative technology. Display CPA CPL CPM campaigns, PPC network, multiple search tools adapted to all kind of content. AdOptim is fully ready to monetize an International Audience. Ad network, XML feeds.
Manage advertising on Facebook Ads (right-hand-column) for Facebook apps and games.
Online brand protection. Marketers' advertising only appears on sites with content deemed by the marketer to be consistent with brand image and corporate philosophy. Provides third-party content rating and certification platform. Ad Network, Ad Exchange, Creative agency.
PPC ad network serving tier-1 content publishers, advertisers and media agencies. Targeted text ads.
Display network is powered by OpenX.
Brand-safe graphical display advertising. Shields sensitive brands from delivery on unsafe and undesirable websites. Real-time contextual targeting.
Division of Advertising.com headquartered in Frankfurt Germany. Manage, report and optimize all interactive media campaigns. Adserving for publishers and ad networks. Demographic targeting. New York, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Chicago, Toronto, London, Paris, Stockholm, Helsinki, Oslo, Copenhagen, Amsterdam, Frankfurt, Bangkok, Cape Town, Sydney
Daily Hands on and Automated Optimization.
Grand Rapids, MI
|Advertise.com: Ad solutions include PPC Search, CPC banners, Mobile & Remarketing. Publisher solutions include InText ads, xml feeds, display ads, bounce monetization and email offers. |
Platform-A = AOL content + Advertising.com ad network + TACODA targeting analytics. Demographic, channel, Standard Industry Classification (SIC) IP address matching, psychographic, dayparting, zip code and geographic targeting.
Geo-targeting, time-targeting, frequency capping. CPM/CPC/CPL/CPA/CPV
CPC/CPA contextual advertising. Ad network, ad exchange, ad serving. Chicago, India, ... worldwide.
Uses demographics to target ads (sports, entertainment and gaming arenas, as well as men’s interests, women’s interests, teenage, leisure, music, hobbies, and general news and media). Started with sports niche. International customer base.
|ai Match: |
A meld of ad serving and consumer intelligence for yield optimization. CPM, CPC, CPA, eCPM
Raleigh NC, London
|Alcance Media Group: |
Focused on Latino/Hispanic Market.
San Francisco, CA
Works with targeted publishers and application developers to place content editorially in-page. Video and print. Alphabird can also manage in-banner, rich media, and pre-roll media buys. Video CPV and CPCV ads.
San Francisco, CA
|Atlas Solutions: |
Microsoft Advertising. Seattle WA, San Francisco CA, New York, Raleigh, London, Paris, Hamburg, Milan, Australia, Tokyo
|Banner Connect: |
Global (European, Arabic) Located in the Netherlands.
|Batanga Network: |
|Behave Media: |
CPA, CPL, CPC campaigns. Optimization on location, category. Search, Social, Contextual, Digital and Mobile solutions.
|BET Interactive Ad Network: |
Targets African American and urban US consumers.
|Bidvertiser Ad Network: |
Site targeted for relevancy. Ads for eBay Sales. XML feeds for CPC text ads.
|Boot Camp Media: |
CPM, CPC or CPA. Real time bidding. Partnered with the Eq network. Targeted advertising. 100% fill rates.
|Brand Reach: |
Internet Ad Consulting company. They help each client formulate a strategy and then execute this strategy. Ad Network, ad exchange, affiliate marketing.
|Bravenet Media: |
XML PPC feeds. RedVase ad server.
British Columbia Canada.
|Bright Roll: |
Video ad network. Minimum publisher requirements: 500,000 page views/month and 5,000,000 video views a month.
Paid search ads, CPM, PPC and CPC. Integrated online marketing.
|Broadstreet Interactive: |
Media buying, ad serving, PR, paid search.
|Burst Media: |
Reliable and pay regularly but low ad fulfillment. Excellent publisher ad management and reporting.
Burlington, Massachusetts US, London UK
|Buy dot At: |
Global affiliate marketing.
Focus on brand safety, premium media, and smart technology solutions. We serve the needs of top-rated publishers, Fortune 500 brands, and leading media agencies. Our business is selling intelligently optimized brand name display inventory within our highly controlled, short tail environment. Categorized ad channels for targeted ads. Ad network.
CPA Affiliate network. Ad network, ad exchange.
|Cox Digital Solutions:|
Ad network, direct sales, CPM, RTB, sponsored links.
South San Francisco CA
New York US, Milano Italy, Madrid Spain, Istanbul Turkey, Hamburg Germany
Built upon the Right Media/Yahoo RMX platform
|Drive Performance Media:|
Microsoft Subsidiary. Publishers are top Alexa 250 web sites only. Profiles viewer audience.
US, Argentina, China, France, Mexico, Turkey, Brazil, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, Japan, ...
|Google Adsense, DoubleClick: auction leads to highest revenue|
URL: http://www.Google.com, http://www.Google.com/doubleclick/
In-image ad network. Image analysis pairs advertisements with contextually relevant images.
|IDG Tech Network|
Computer industry and Tech contextual ads
New York NY, San Francisco, Chicago
PPC search advertising network. Serves keyword-based text ads on their targeted network of publisher sites. XML feeds.
Display ad network that matches our advertisers requirements perfectly to the users and content they are targeting. International Ad network. UK
Global ad network based in London. CPM/CPC ads
Global ad network
|Media.net: (Yahoo/Bing network)|
Premium contextual advertising company that dynamically identifies and delivers the most relevant and engaging ads related to a web page. Blend contextual analysis with behavior data, audience profiling and past performance cues to substantially enhance value for both web publishers and advertisers. eCPM
Austin TX, Dubai, Mumbai India, Bangalore India, Los Angeles CA
|Microsoft Ad Center: |
|Nami Media: |
Ties into Yahoo Right Media exchange. An ad network which also offers a platform on which other networks can build. CPC, CPA. HTML and XML feeds. Text and image ads.
Venice Beach CA US
|Newspaper National Network (NNNLP):|
Owned by a consortium of newspapers to server newspapers and their websites. Hyperlocal, contextual and behavioral targeting.
Open Source ad server, ad network and optimization
Los Angles US
Performance based advertising. CPC, CPA, CPL, CPS, & CPM
Semantic web platform and ad exchange company. Relevad provides a wide range of hosted web services for publishers, ad network operators, domain parkers and content aggregators. Semantic Ad Exchange, Ad network and Ad serving
|Rocket Fuel: |
Data driven technology applied to ad serving. Ad network, Ad exchange, demographic and behavioral targeting
|Rhythm New Media: |
Mobile video ad network.
|Specific Media: |
Global: US, UK, Germany, France. Demographic, contextual (support for 3,300 categories), behavioral and geographic targeting and retargeting.
|The Trade Desk: |
Data-driven marketing suite that offers marketers a single place to buy all forms of online media. Ad network, Ad Exchange. XML feeds to exchanges.
|Traffic Engine Inc: |
Delivering industry-leading exposure and click conversion by utilizing a targeted customer base. Ad network, Ad Exchange
|Tribal Fusion: |
reliable and pay regularly
Emeryville CA, US
Supports Video and rich media as well as traditional web.
Westlake Village CA, US
Embedd ads into online videos, gaming, flash widgets
Publisher chooses CPA ad campaigns/affiliates which best fit their audience. Ad network and affiliate marketing.
|Yahoo Publishers Network:|
Sunnyvale CA, US
Online video ad network. Support for targeted channels. Redwood City CA, London, New York, Boston, Atlanta, Chicago, Santa Monica CA, Detroit, Chennai India, Paris
|Life of an Ad: Relationship between the advertiser and the publisher
The relationship can be as simple as a web publisher selling ad space to an advertiser (buyer - seller relationship) but more typically can be as complicated as a 6 or 7 tier hierarchy:
The Ad business layers:
Many times companies will take on more than one role. In the case of Google, the SSP (AdWords), exchange (Adx) and DSP+Ad Network (AdSense) are all one company.
- Advertiser (often hires an ad agency to manage the advertisement campaign and generate the artwork: the "Creative")
- DSP: Demand Side Platform - these are the brokers which have relationships with advertisers and ad agencies. The ad inventory bids for placement in the exchange.
- Ad Auction: the marketplace of ads and mediator between the DSP and SSP.
- DSP makes inquiry to SSP
- SSP states its availability to negotiate
- Rules set for the negotiation
- bids made/bid accepted
- Ad delivered by the DSP to the SSP for display
- SSP: Supply Side Platform - provides ad placement with a place to put the ad for the agreed price.
- Ad Networks (typically the provider of ad server)
- Publisher: gets paid by ad network for each ad viewed or acted upon by the consumer
Transactions to feed an ad:
- The web browser makes a HTTP request to the Web publisher's server for a web page.
- The web browser processes the redirect request to the SSP's server. The SSP negotiates a Real Time Bid (RTB) for an ad space with the DSP.
The DSP will lookup information about the user held by a 3rd party intelligence data mining company so the DSP can qualify the user, their interests and provide a relevant ad.
In return the browser receives a redirect request to the DSP.
- The web browser makes a GET request for an ad with the DSP or an alternate ad server.
In return the browser receives an ad, typically in less than a second!
- Typically the SSP will negotiate bids with multiple DSPs to find the highest bidder.
- Data about the consumer is typically gathered by consumer intelligence agencies based on their web surfing habits across multiple web sites.
The web surfer's IP address, cookies, web page content, viewing history, and location all factor into the ad delivered.
- Consumer intelligence data is fed to the ad network or to the DSP to help them determine which ad to feed.
- The final ad content delivery is often by a CDN (eg Akamai) to improve speed.
|Advertising Exchanges, Markets:
Ad exchanges, markets and auctions are web based platforms for buying and selling ad inventory and ad impressions. An ad exchange enables marketplace pricing by providing the technology platform (server, software and interfaces) to enable the management, billing and reporting of bid based transactions.
They are yet another middleman in the business flow of web advertising for publishers.
List of advertising Exchanges:
|Exchange||Description and Link|
|AdECN: (owned by Microsoft)|
Multiple audience targeting options: contextual, behavioral, and keyword. Fast. Provides an auction mechanism for per-impression based inventory.
Private Ad Exchange for direct sales ads.
Gothenburg (HQ), New York, Ottawa
|AdMob: (owned by Google)|
Mobile advertising. Mobile apps.
Video Ad network and exchange.
|Advertising.com: (owned by AOL)|
Display, text and video inventory. Also content production, ad optimization, bidding, etc.
|Double Click Adx: (owned by Google)|
Employs their DART for Advertisers platform. Provides automated ad management.
|Media Math (Terminal One):|
Algorithmic bid optimization. Targeted ads: Geographic, demographic, biographic, etc
Real Time Bidding (RTB) Mobile Ad Exchange. Advertising for mobile applications.
Real Time Bidding (RTB) Mobile Ad Exchange. Advertising for mobile applications.
|AdMarvel: Open Mobile Exchange (Opera):|
Started by the Opera browser folks for mobile platforms. Mobile content and mobile apps.
|Right Media (Yahoo):|
Supports advertisers, publishers, demand side platforms, ad networks and exchanges.
|TraffIQ (Trading Desk):|
Workflow solution streamlines the digital media planning and buying process by enabling users to discover sites, distribute, acquire, bid, deliver and analyze ad inventory.
New York City.
Data driven digital advertising. Globally manage ad campaigns. Prominent DSP (Demand Side Platforms). Performs Real Time Bidding (RTB)
Redwood City CA, New York City, Charlotte, Chicago, London, Los Angeles, and San Francisco.
DSP: Demand Side Platform
|Organization||Description and Link|
Vendor neutral DSP. Uses and integrates with existing ad exchanges, analytics vendors and ad exchanges. Does not act as an ad network but exclusively as a DSP intermediary between the ad exchange and the ad network.
Boston, Chicago, Detroit, New York, San Francisco, Cologne, London, Madrid, Milan, Paris, Sao Paulo, Warsaw
Typically the Ad Optimizers will aggregate ad feeds from multiple ad networks, determine which ads will pay more and feed ads from the network paying the most at that moment in time and for that demographic and location.
List of Advertising Optimizers:
|Organization||Description and Link|
|Double Click: (owned by Google)|
Employs their DART for Advertisers platform. Provides automated ad management. Will feed highest paying ad from Doubleclick/Google inventory or from outside feed.
Ads from hundreds of ad networks and all major exchanges. Large pool of ad sources: Real Time Bidding (RTB), ad networks, and demand side platforms (DSPs). Will feed the publisher the most profitable option.
A/B split testing, multi-variate optimization on text/background color optimization of text ads, and other ad factors. Payments are from your ad networks.
Redwood City CA, Pune India, London, New York
|Rubicon Project: manual tuning of ad feeds results in higher returns than a straight ad feed (higher than most networks but on par with Google AdSense). New traffic and income requirements lead to them dropping YoLinux.com. Rubicon now charges a fee of at least $2,000.00 per month so your ad income had better double that before even considering this service. Optimization includes demographic, geographic and content factors. Ad network payouts are consolidated into a single check.|
Playa Del Ray CA
|YieldBuild: Machine-learning algorithms determine the best-performing ad network for each spot on your page. Run high-performance, high-quality display ads from trusted, top-tier agency and ad networks. Improve your existing ad revenue stream with additional ad sources. Automated format and layout optimization. Other factors include text/background color combinations, ad networks and changes to counter ad blindness. Payments are direct from your ad networks.|
San Francisco CA
|Consumer Intelligence, Targeted Placement and Analytics:
Companies in this category are used to align ads with targeted consumers based on intelligence gathered
|Organization||Description and Link|
Acxiom supplies a variety of business intelligence solutions. The Acxiom Relevance-X product allows advertising platforms to achieve highly targeted engagements. Also provides identity management, database marketing and analytics services.
Business audience marketing. Bizo gathers vast amounts of non-personally identifiable information (non-PII) information through its business publisher partners in the form of subscription information, business registrations, and other online data sources.
Data-centric approach to audience targeting. Aggregation of in-market shopping data.
Audience analytics, yield optimization. New York
Provides predictive scoring and analytics solutions for marketing, credit risk, fraud prevention and collections applications to multichannel marketers, financial services companies, Internet retailers and agencies.
Data Management and Data Marketplace solutions for online advertising.
Partner with data-owners and media-owners to provide consumers with relevant, privacy-sensitive, Post-Search ads.
|Online Publisher Advertising Methods:
SSI Ad Example: (web page HTML file snippet)
<!--#include file="panel_160px.incl" -->
<!-- Campaign ABC Ad XYZ -->
For more on Server Side Includes (SSI) see the Apache SSI documentation.
(BTW, this also is available for most other web servers including Microsoft IIS)
To avoid this, HTML iframes can be used isolate the loading of the advertisement from the loading and display of the web page.
Note that the iframe can be placed in a server side include, thus combining methodologies.
Iframe Ad Example: (web page HTML file snippet)
<iframe class="adframe" scrolling="no" allowTransparency="true"
width="728" frameborder="0" height="90"
(HTML file to be displayed in iframe)
<body marginwidth=0 marginheight=0 leftmargin=0 topmargin=0 style="background-color:transparent">
Note the reference to document=parent.document; will make the parent document available to the advertiser's (Google) ad script.
<body marginwidth=0 marginheight=0 leftmargin=0 topmargin=0 style="background-color:transparent">
google_ad_client = "pub-XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX";
Google Adsense iframe policy
- Web CMS Frameworks: Use of a web content Management System framework such as Wordpress or Drupal will allow for the management of advertising on your web site.
The support is built in so that you can control ads across the entire web site.
Note for Wordpress users: The iframe technique described above can be used only if you first install the iframe plugin. The raw html shown above is not used but an equivalent wiki markup syntax is used instead.
|Ad Service Variations and non-standard mediums:
|Service||Description and Link|
Search relevancy and optimization. Create higher converting campaigns.
Ads marked with a "K", when clicked, are kept for viewing later.
Audience data management, Real-time processing and optimization, Analytics. Identifies the best audiences to reach, then syncs the audiences with your media. Dynamically assembles and serves the most relevant creative for each user.
Software to automatically identify and report discrepancies. Aggregates data from 3rd party platforms (ad servers) for billing reconciliation and discrepancy management.
Ad analytics for advertisers/agencies, publishers and ad networks. CPC ad analytics for click fraud detection. Compliance verification, attribution, measure conversions/assign credit. Austin TX
Real time verification for DSP, exchanges, ad networks, publishers to monitor fraud and non-compliant publishers. Can tie in the ad networks server with DoubleVerify to rate a pass/fail on the publisher. Can block ads from appearing on domains and pages and in specific geographic locations in real time so that ads do not run next to inappropriate content or appear to the wrong audience. New York, Israel
Optimization of ad campaign performance using statistics. Improved delivery, yield, click through rates, revenue, margins, conversions, brand engagement, ...
End to end ad business operations outsourcing. Can provide sales, finance, billing, CRM, Inventory systems,... Providing solutions for Publishers (campaign management, ad serving, ad trafficking, technical consulting,..), ad networks and ad agencies. New York, London, Sao Paulo, Bangalore
|Proformative Insights: |
Specialized marketing and lead generation to Corporate Finance, Accounting and Treasury executives across multiple platforms. Multi-media advertising and integrated marketing programs to a desirable, narrowly-targeted audience of decision makers. B2B
|RSG Media: |
Revenue optimization: delivery and yield optimization, deal management, ad sales pricing and rate forecasts, reserve.
Digital media tools for publisher ad operations: rate cards, proposal and contract building, finance reconciliation, sales analytics, yield management.
- Ad Exchange: The technology platform which facilitates the bidding (on behalf of advertisers) and purchase of online publisher inventory from multiple ad networks.
- CDN: Content Delivery Network (eg Akamai) Ad media delivery with high speed servers located near the consumer.
- CTR: Click Through rate (number of ad clicks divided by the number of page views).
- DSP: Demand Side Platform - Typically the ad network placing the requests for ad from the ad exchange. The DSP manages multiple ad exchanges to provide the best ad to the publisher based on various performance indicators.
- OBA: Online Behavioral Advertising - deliver behaviorally targeted ads.
- Publisher Inventory: The web publisher's available unsold ad space for an advertisement. Often called simply "inventory".
- QPS: Queries Per Second - volume of display ads being offered via RTB
- RPM: Revenue for 1000 page impressions (page views).
- RTB: Real Time Bidding - Allows web publishers to access the ads of the highest bidder. Real time auction for ad placement. Publisher's ad space is bid on in real time and the highest bid is selected.
- SEM: Search Engine Marketing - ads placed on search engine results.
- SSP: Supply Side Platform - ad providers - the technology platform which represents the suppliers of online advertisements and tries to guarantee ad inventory.
- AdSapient - later became AdServerBeans then dissapeared.
- AdZerk - Ad servers for publishers and ad networks
- OpenX.org - Php based. Uses OpenX Market to sell ads.
- Oasis - PHP/Apache/MySQL - Basic simple
- Max Media Manager - based on phpAdsNew
- VA Bennerator - PHP/Apache/MySQL and load balanced across numerous servers - No project page
- Apache mod_adbanners - for static web pages - No project page
- Appnexus - supports Real TimeBidding (RTB), open API
|Advertising Trade Organizations and Associations:
- DMA: Direct Marketing Association - global trade association of businesses and nonprofit organizations. DMA advocates industry standards for responsible marketing – both online and offline.
- NetworkAdvertising.org: NAI - Network Advertising Initiative - association of advertising networks, data exchanges, and marketing analytics services providers to help safeguard online privacy.
- ANA: Association of National Advertisers - the advertising industry’s oldest trade association, founded on June 24, 1910 in Detroit, Michigan by 45 companies to safeguard and advance the interests of advertisers and consumers. Currently, the ANA leads the marketing community by providing its members insights, collaboration, and advocacy.
- Ad-ID: Advertising Identification and Management - Web-based system accessible 24/7 worldwide that generates a unique identifying code for each advertising asset, creating a capability to identify them across all media.
- AAAA: American Association of Advertising Agencies - 4A's
- IAB: Internet Advertising Board - corporate listings
- NAI: Network Advertising Initiative - online privacy
|Advertising Journals and Publications:
|Advertising Information Links:
|Affiliate Services and Brokers:
Affiliate programs are ecommerce systems which integrate sales or actions into a publisher's website.
The publisher can offer products for sale and even have a complete shopping site without performing any of the fulfillment.
The introduction of the web viewer to the product is handled by the web publisher but the sales transactions and fulfillment is handled by the vendor.
Typically the website publisher get a slice of the transaction (typically 1-15%).
An affiliate service is the neutral intermediate party which makes sure the website is credited with any transaction which originates with the publisher and reaches fulfillment.
The affiliate services most often represent many vendors and publishers and can perform the monitoring and tracking of the transactions.
OfferVault.com: Affiliate lists and comparisons
- Affiliate Spice - tools to generate an affiliate program and link affiliations
- ShareResults - complete affiliate marketing software & solutions - run your own affiliate program
- Affiliate Summit - affiliate marketing conference
The advertising and affiliate industry was once rampant with fraud and abuse.
Fraud detection is much better than it was which is good for legitimate publishers who are now coveted for ad placement and good for advertisers who are not scammed for advertising dollars.
There are publishers which "buy traffic" from nefarious sources who have bots to produce fake traffic and ad clicks. I'm happy to say that this behavior can now be detected with sophisticated algorithms and cookie analysis.
Ad verification to make sure the advertisement is placed on an appropriate web page for the targeted user, has become a sophisticated business not to just avoid fraud but to verify that the the advertiser has optimized their advertising dollar.
Affiliate programs were once subject to fake purchases only to be hassled by charge-back claims or product returns. Deceptive websites and vendors are also now quickly recognized due to a more rigorous screening process.
Techniques such as IP velocity measurement (how much activity is coming from a single IP address), IP geolocation (legitimate location for a purchase) and blacklists have done wonders to reduce fraud.
The Online Advertising Playbook
by Joe Plummer, Steve Rappaport, Taddy Hall, Robert Barocci
ISBN #0470051051, Wiley 2007
Proven Strategies and Tested Tactics from the Advertising Research Foundation
by David Schumann, Esther Thorson
ISBN #0805851097, Psychology Press, 2nd edition 2007
Theory and Research (Advertising and Consumer Psychology)
The Complete Guide to Google Advertising
by Bruce Brown
ISBN #1601380453, Atlantic Publishing 2008
Tips, Tricks, & Strategies to Create a Winning Advertising Plan